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PERBANDINGAN BATASAN USIA PENCALONAN PRESIDEN DAN WAKIL PRESIDEN DALAM BERBAGAI KONSTITUSI NEGARA DI DUNIA

Penulis : Zul Fajri Yoesva

Dosen Legal Drafting Fasyar UIN Ar-Raniry Banda Aceh.

Banda Aceh, OBE I Polemik batas usia calon presiden dan calon wakil presiden (capres dan cawapres) berakhir dengan diputusnya permohonan yang diajukan oleh Mahasiswa Universitas Surakarta Almas Tsaqibbirru dalam Perkara Nomor 90/PUU-XXI/2023. Dalam putusan tersebut, Mahkamah mengabulkan sebagian permohonan yang menguji Pasal 169 huruf q Undang-Undang Nomor 7 Tahun 2017 tentang Pemilihan Umum (UU Pemilu). Batasan usia untuk nominasi jabatan Presiden dan Wakil Presiden di beberapa negara sangatlah bervariasi. Setidaknya ada 4 cluster usia dalam paradigma konstitusi negara-negara di dunia:

Pertama, negara yang menetapkan batas usia minimalnya 45 tahun, misalnya Cina dan Pakistan.

Dalam konstitusi Cina (Pasal 79 Konstitusi Cina yang berbunyi, “Citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have the right to vote and to stand for election and who have reached the age of 45 are eligible for election as President or Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China.”.

Pakistan (Pasal 41 ayat (2) Konstitusi Pakistan yang menyatakan, “A person shall not be qualified for election as President unless he is a Muslim of not less than forty-five years of age and is qualified to be elected as member of the National Assembly.”

Kedua, negara yang menerapkan batas minimal usia 40 tahun, misalnya:
1. ALBANIA (Pasal 86 ayat 2 Konstitusi Albania yang menyatakan, “Only an Albanian citizen by birth who has been a resident in Albania for not less than the past 10 years and who has reached the age of 40 may be elected President.”);
2. AFGHANISTAN (Pasal 62 Konstitusi Afganistan menyatakan, “The individual who becomes a presidential candidate shall have the following qualifications: … 2. Shall not be less than forty years old the day of candidacy”);
3. ALJAZAIR (Pasal 91 Konstitusi Aljazair menyatakan, “To be eligible for the Presidency of the Republic, the candidate shall… be forty (40) years old on election day”)
4. CEKO (Pasal 57 ayat (1) Konstitusi Republik Ceko menyatakan, “Any citizen eligible for election to the Senate may be elected President.”Sedangkan pengaturan terkait usia menjadi Senat diatur di dalam Pasal 19 ayat (2) yang menyatakan, “Any citizen of the Czech Republic who has the right to vote and has attained the age of forty is eligible for election to the Senate.”);
5. ESTONIA (Pasal 79 paragraf ketiga Konstitusi Estonia menyatakan, “An Estonian citizen by birth who has attained forty years of age may be nominated as a candidate for President of the Republic.”)
6. MAKEDONIA UTARA (Pasal 80 Konstitusinya menyatakan, “The President of the Republic is elected in general and direct elections, by secret ballot, for a term of five years. A person may be elected President of the Republic two times at most. The President of the Republic shall be a citizen of the Republic of Macedonia. A person may be elected President of the Republic if over the age of at least 40 on the day of election….”);
7. FILIPINA (di dalam Article VII, Section 2 Konstitusi Filipina dikatakan bahwa, “No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election.”);
8. KOREA SELATAN (Pasal 67 ayat (4) Konstitusi Korea menyatakan, “Citizens who are eligible for election to the National Assembly, and who have reached the age of forty years or more on the date of the presidential election, shall be eligible to be elected to the presidency.”);
9. JERMAN (Pasal 54 ayat (1) Konstitusi Jerman menyatakan, “The Federal President shall be elected by the Federal Convention without debate. Any German who is entitled to vote in Bundestag elections and has attained the age of forty may be elected.”);
10. TURKI (Pasal 101 paragraf pertama Konstitusi Turki menyatakan, “The President of the Republic shall be elected directly by the public from among Turkish citizens who are eligible to be deputies, who are over forty years of age and who have completed higher education.”);
11. ARMENIA (Pasal 124 ayat (2) Konstitusi Armenia menyatakan, “Everyone who has attained the age of 40, has been a citizen of only the Republic of Armenia for the preceding six years, has permanently resided in
the Republic of Armenia for the preceding six years, has voting right, and has a command of the Armenian language may be elected as President of the Republic.”)

Ketiga, negara yang menerapkan batas usia minimal 35 tahun, misalnya:
1. ANGOLA (Pasal 110 ayat (1) menyatakan, “Citizens of Angolan origin aged at
least thirty-five who have habitually resided in the country for at least ten years and are in full possession of their civil and political rights and physical and mental capacities shall be eligible for election as President of the Republic”);
2. AUSTRIA (Pasal 60 ayat (3) Konstitusi Austria yang menyatakan, “Only a person who is eligible to the National Council and has completed the thirty-fifth year of life on the day of the election can be elected Federal President.”);
3. BANGLADESH (Pasal 48 ayat (4) Konstitusi Banglades menyatakan, “A person shall not be qualified for election as President if he: a. is less than thirty-five years of age; or b. is not qualified for election as a member of Parliament; or
c. has beenremoved from the office of President by impeachment under this Constitution.”);
4. BELARUSIA (Pasal 80 Konstitusi Belarus menyatakan, “Any citizen of the Republic of Belarus by birth at least 35 years of age who is eligible to vote and has been resident in the Republic of Belarus for at least ten years to the elections may be elected President.”);
5. BRAZIL (Pasal 14 ayat (3) angka VI huruf a Konstitusi
Brazil menyatakan, “minimum age of:
a. thirty-five years for President and Vice-
President of the Republic and Senator;”);
6. INDIA (Pasal 58 ayat (1) Konstitusi India menyatakan, “No person shall be eligible for election as President unless
he:
a. is a citizen of India,
b. has completed the age of thirty-five years,…”);
7. MEKSIKO (Pasal 82 Konstitusi Meksiko menyatakan, “Qualifications for the Presidency: … II. The candidate for the Presidency must be 35 years of age
on the election date.”);
8. POLANDIA (Pasal 127 ayat (3) Konstitusi menyatakan, “Only a Polish citizen who, no later than the day of the elections, has attained 35 years of age and has a full electoral franchise in elections to the Sejm, may be elected President of the Republic. Any such candidature shall be supported by the signatures of at least 100,000 citizens having the right to vote in elections to the Sejm.”);
9. RUMANIA (Pasal 37 ayat (2) Konstitusi Rumania, “Candidates must be at least 23 years of age by or on election day to be elected to the Chamber of Deputies or to the local public administration bodies, at least 33 years of age to be elected to the Senate, and at least 35 years to be elected to the office of President of Romania.”);
10. RUSIA (Pasal 81 ayat (2) Konstitusi Rusia, menyatakan, “Any citizen of the Russian Federation not younger than 35 years of age who has resided in the Russian Federation on a permanent basis for not less than 10 years may be elected President of the Russian Federation.”); dan
11. AMERIKA SERIKAT (Article II, Section 1, paragraph kelima Konstitusi Amerika Serikat menyatakan, “No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five years, and been fourteen years a Resident within the United States.”);
Keempat, negara yang menerapkan usia minimal 30 tahun, misalnya:
1. ARGENTINA (Pasal 89 Konstitusi Argentina menyatakan, “To be elected
President or Vice President of the Nation requires one to have been born in Argentine territory or if one was born in a foreign country, to be the child of a native citizen and (to possess) the other qualifications required to be elected Senator.” Sedangkan Pasal 55 menyatakan, “The requirements to be elected Senator are: to have attained the age of thirty years,…”);
2. KOLOMBIA (Pasal 191 Konstitusi Kolombia menyatakan, “In order to be President of the Republic, an individual must be Colombian by birth, a citizen in good standing, and over 30 years of age.”). (alman)

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